**Coordinate Systems in** **PANDA**

The program can process coordinates in the following coordinate systems:

– **local cartesian or spherical coordinate system** for engineering nets. Smaller networks can be viewed as a cartesian, in larger networks the curvature has to be considered and therefore a spherical model has to be used.

**– global Cartesian coordinate system** such as WGS 84 for the equalization of pure GPS networks. Observations can be introduced as coordinates or coordinate differences with complete stochastic information.

– **Mapping systems** for the National Ordnance Survey. The mapping coordinates are transformed into and adjusted rigorously as geocentrical cartesian coordinates. So even large-scale networks that cross more than one meridian can be edited. This system must be also used in a combined analysis of terrestrial and GPS data. ETRS89 is supported.

**Figures and ellipsoids in PANDA**

Conformal Mercator and Lambert conformal mappings are supported. Some images are already defined:

– Gauss-Krüger (Germany, Austria)

– UTM

Any ellipsoids are supported. Some ellipsoids are already defined:

– Bessel (Germany, Austria), Krassowski (former East Germany, Russia)

– WGS 72, WGS 84, ETRS 89

**Instruments in PANDA**

For each instrument precisions, specifications and time-depending calibration data are stored, as far as they are required for the reduction of the observations.

The instruments can be exported and imported, a simple data exchange with other agents is easily possible. The following instruments are supported:

– Total Stations (Theodolite, EDM)

Only for distance measurements specifications and calibration data are stored:

– Specifications: Carrierwave lenght, fine scale and reference value for temperature and pressure.

– Calibration data: Addition constant, scale and cyclic phase error.

– Prisma Calibration data: Addition constant

– Level No specification or calibration data

– Staff Calibration data: Staff constant and -scale.

– Lasertracker No specification or calibration data

**Networks – simulation and optimization**

The modul adjustment allows the adjustment of multi-conditional 1D-, 2D- and 3D-networks from all fields of survey engineering and includes the possibility to calculate network-specific criteria, enabling it to analyse and optimize the networks

For the design of networks, a simulated adjustment can be carried out without real observations. The quality of the network design can be analysed according to criteria that the program calculates.

It is easily possible to optimize the network design, simply by modifying the original network data.