PANDA allows the adjustment of 1D-, 2D- und 3D- Networks with up to 5000 points in special versions even more).

One of PANDA’s characteristics is the rigorous combination of conventional terrestrial measurement-data (total station, levelling) with GPS-data and Lasertracker-data. The innovative concept of the so-called “datum-free” adjustment can be applied.

Coordinate systems:

  • local cartesian (Left- or right-system)
  • local spherical, local system with consideration of the earth curvation
  • global geocentric
  • Mapping system, own figures, based on compliant cylinder transverse images, can be created or defined on Lamert-mappings

Storage of Networks:

  • Constraint or free Adjustment. Individual components, such as e. g. points of networks of height-benchmarks can be noted.
  • Free Adjustment with partial- or total trace-minimization
  • ‘Weak Storage“by introducing measured points with information about accuracy


  • Levelling-observations,
  • Total Station-observations (distances, directions and zenith angles) (See WSD)
  • GPS-observations (baselines) (See ITER),
  • measured coordinates with cofaktormatrix (See GeoS),
  • Gyro-measurements (See Tunnel) and
  • Lasertracker observations with user-defined orientation! (See DESY)

The observations are organised in groups, to each group individual accuracy and additional parameters can be assigned. Additional Variables:

  • Scale- and Addition-Unknown for distance measurements
  • Refraction- und Orientation-unknown for zenith angle measurements
  • Orientation unknown for gyro measurements
  • Rotations and scale for baselines
  • Translations, rotations and scale for measured coordinates and
  • Rotations for Lasertracker mesurements

By introducing additional parameter the datum defect of the network can be raised. The Parameter will be determined by the approximate coordinates.

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